Category: climate

Overview of EU ETS phases

Recently, I was teaching on emissions trading and the EU Emission Trading System (ETS). In preparation for this it took me quite a while to get a good overview of the different phases of the EU ETS. So I thought I’d share my overview table here:

EU ETS Phases

If you have any suggestions for improvement, I’m quite happy to update it.


Big cuts in France’s nuclear energy portfolio due to EDF state ownership?

A majority of French parliamentarians has signalled that they would agree to a law stipulating the reduction of nuclear energy in France’s energy mix from 75% to 50% until 2025. Instead, energy efficiency and renewables shall receive more support. The national assembly is due to vote on the new law on 14 October 2014.

France has historically seen much less public resistance to its huge nuclear power installations than Germany. Why does it now seem so easy to announce such drastic cuts?

A major factor could be that most nuclear reactors belong the EDF, an energy corporation whose vast majority of shares are still held by the French government. In the French case, the government still controls one of the “commanding heights” of the economy and is thus far less affected by private sector lobbying.

Nuclear power is a technology that corresponds well to centralisation, as it is based on big projects and needs a lot of security measures in place. The question is now whether France will follow such a centralised approach in the case of renewables, which lend themselves much better to decentralised approaches than nuclear power. If the road of decentralisation is chosen, this may well result in the emergence of a stronger lobby group for renewables.

Hopefully, the French government retains control over EDF until its energy portfolio is much less nuclear than today. Otherwise, a strong lobby force, blocking the transition from nuclear to renewable power, may result.

Were countries on target during the Kyoto Protocol’s 1st Commitment Period?

Yesterday I taught the seminar “Climate Change Policies in Comparative Perspective” and one of my students asked me whether the countries who have emissions targets under the Kyoto Protocol had actually been on target during the first Commitment Period (2008-2012). I knew that they were within the target range overall, yet I didn’t have a good overview of which individual countries had actually been on target and which hadn’t. Realising this I trawled through the net and it actually took me a while to come up with a good overview. The document I finally found states that

…complete and detailed official data regarding the countries’ emissions and transactions of carbon credits in 2008-2012 was not available until April 2014.

So until recently it wouldn’t have been possible to produce an authoritative overview. Now that I found the document, here I provide a screenshot of the relevant overview page with a link to the original report.

Kyoto Compliance

Canada, who had the greatest overshoot, had dropped out before the end of the first commitment period. Japan, with a much smaller overshoot, has withdrawn from the second committment period.

Interestingly, Norway also had a sizeable overshoot. I wonder if that’s a factor behind the country’s heavy engagement with the establishment of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) programmes.

Without the economic crisis Spain would certainly have been even less on target.

As I understand it, these numbers don’t take into account the use of flexible mechanisms (offsetting and emissions trading). Thus, they cannot really provide the whole picture in terms of compliance. All in all, a handy overview.